Journée d’étude internationale FABRIQ’AM (ANR, LESC & MONDESAM)
Du Hip Hop à Whatsapp : Nouvelles formes de communication chez les amérindiens
31 mars 2016, EHESS 105 bd. Raspail, salle 8
Organisateurs : LESC – Karla Avilés González (Labex EFL, Paris 7) & Valentina Vapnarsky (EREA/LESC, CNRS)
One of the well-known specificities of globalization is its important capacity to establish connections inside communities as well as between geographically distant and culturally diverse populations (Inda y Rosaldo 2001). Fluxes of capital, ideas, people, images, wealth nowadays travel across frontiers with great freedom and intensity. Traditional mass media such as television, radio and newspapers have played an important role in this communicational intensification, with broad analogical and digital transfers. Since the end of the XXth century, digital innovations have also revolutionized these global interconnections, not just by applying them to the classical mass media, but also by making them accessible to a large audience (popularization of computers, softwares, and internet access with social networks such as Facebook or more personal ones such as WhatsApp or Skype).
All this leads us to ask, in general terms: What are the reaches and implications of these new forms of communication in the new dynamics of Amerindian languages and cultures? And more precisely: How do Amerindian communities use these media, and how do these media reconfigure Amerindian communicative practices and their ethnic identities? One aim of this meeting is to understand how the new Amerindian generations use these digital media to transmit their tastes, interests and concerns, that is, to understand these new practices which respond to a form of socialization more in formal than formal, from a non-institutional perspective, and which can embrace a diversity of contexts, from ludic to political.
For instance, we know that hip-hop is more than a musical genre, from its beginnings it has been a cultural movement characterized by the expression of ethnic vindications, as with the case of Afro-Americans and Latinos in the USA. Hip-hop includes singing styles (rap, among others), music, dance, and visual arts. We know that hip-hop is now a worldwide phenomenon, although it has been mostly studied as a cultural urban movement (Terkourafi, 2010). It was powered by mass media, including internet, to which most indigenous communities nowadays have access. On the contrary, mass media and internet have become a fundamental expression space for these communities (e.g.https://rising.Globalvoices .org /lenguas/). However, we know little about the way indigenous communities reinvest hip-hop in the digital era (Cru 2015), and the same goes for other modern musical genres such as reggae in Yucatec Maya, Tsotsil rock or electronic music in Toba. All this invites us to reconsider the limits of concepts such as local, rural, urban, tradition, modernity, …
Another field of inquiry concerns the study of communication through social networks or messaging, such as chat or WhatsApp. These have led to the development of intensive practices of written and remote exchanges in societies where orality was up to recently largely dominant. What forms, contents and frames of participation do these communicative exchanges take? How are conversational and linguistic norms incorporated and transformed in these new medias? How do written and oral messages get integrated in these new media and how do these new practices of written (but increasingly multimodal) communication affect face-to-face orality?
The meeting aims at deciphering how Amerindian cultures adapt these genres and communicational media to express their own voices in Amerindian languages or in bilingual settings. Contextual and interactional analyses of the communicative and creative practices will be privileged. Special attention will also be given to the way the new virtual spaces of communication renew cultural images and stereotypes, by denouncing ideologies of discrimination, but also by the ludic power of these practices to transform cultural norms and ethnic identities. In this sense, aspects of these new practices are also part of the variety of processes of cultural heritagization characteristic of our era. The event will offer a forum to compare studies from different indigenous cultures of America.
10h00 : Présentation Karla J. Avilés González (LABEX EFL, Paris 7 / EREA) et Valentina Vapnarsky (EREA/LESC, CNRS)
10h10-11h : Josep Cru (Université de Newcastle, Angleterre) : Bilingual rap in Yucatan: Strategic choices for the revitalisation of Amerindian languages
11h-11h50 : Hilario Chi Canul (Université du Quintana Roo, Mexique) : Vitalidad lingüística y cultural de los mayas en tiempos de WasK’oop (“Cocorrón con tino” – grupo whatsApp maya internacional). Donde la modernidad y la tradición buscan un punto de encuentro
11h50-12h : Pause
12h-12h30 : Mônica Celeida Rabelo Nogueira & Cristiane De Assis Portela (Université de Brasilia) : Apropiaciones tecnológicas y reinterpretaciones culturales entre estudiantes indígenas de Brasil
14h-14h30 : Magda Helena Dziubinska (LESC-EREA) : L’amour amérindien sur Facebook (ou quand l’anthropologie frôle le voyeurisme)
14h30-15h : Marie-Pierre Bousquet (Université de Montréal) : « C’est quoi ton Facebook?» Vie privée, vie publique des Algonquins du Québec
15h-15h30 : Pirjo Kristiina Virtanen (Université de Helsinki) : Social media in indigenous Brazilian Amazonia – digital exchanges
15h30-16h00 : Pause
16h-16h30 : Genner Llanes-Ortiz (CIESAS, Mexico / Global Raising Voices) : Activismo Digital de Lenguas Indígenas: avances en la comprensión de un nuevo campo de acción en América Latina
16h30-17h15 : Discussion